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Freire, Paolo. Education for Critical Consciousness. New York: Continuum Publishing Company, 1973.

Available from: Continuum Publishing Company; phone (800) 561-7704; $15.95.

This 164-page book includes two essays by Paolo Freire, the man who introduced the problem-posing technique of popular education to the United States. The essays are Education as the Practice of Freedom and Extension or Communication. The first essay is about Friere's work in Brazil with "illiterates," that explains his process of using "culture circles" and "generative words" instead of the traditional teacher-led learning processes to teach adult literacy. Crucial to his work is the idea of teaching people to have a "critical attitude" toward the world, so that they can make sense of their world and find ways to change it or take action. Included in the appendix are the drawings he used in his "culture circles" and the 17 "generative words" for his work with peasants in Brazil. While the prose can be dense, it presents the origins of the popular education or participatory education techniques which have worked so well in the United States with teaching health in literacy settings.

Keywords: Literacy education, learner-centered